Giuseppe Haydn

13 OPERÆ

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Kultur Niederösterreich, Haydn Stiftung

Acide

Festa teatrale

Haydn13

Information about the opera

Original title

ACIDE. FESTA TEATRALE, CHE SI RAPPRESENTA IN EISENSTADT, NELL'OCCASIONE DEL FELICISSIMO IMENEO, DEGLI ILLUSTRISSIMI ET ECCELLENTISSIMI IL SIGNOR CONTE ANTONIO D'ESTERHASY DE GALANTHA &c. &c. E LA SIGNORA CONTESSA TERESA D'ERDÖDI DE N. &c. &c. Ai 11, del Gennaro dell' Anno 1763.

Classification
I. period 1. opera / series XXV:1 / Hob. XXVIII:1
Opera type
Festa teatrale / Opera seria
Number of acts
1
Occasion of composition

Wedding of Count Anton Esterházy (1738-1794), eldest son of Prince Nicolaus Esterházy, and Countess Therese Erdödy (1745-1782).

Year
1762 / edition 1773
World premiere
11 January 1763
Place of world premiere
Probably in the great hall of Eisenstadt Castle
Number of performances

Eine Wiederaufnahme war Dokumenten zufolge am 26. Juli oder Anfang September 1773 geplant. Aus unerfindlichen Gründen kam es aber letztendlich nicht dazu1. Erst am 25. September 1774 erfuhr Acide eine Wiederaufführung. Hierfür wurde eine revidierte Fassung von Haydn angefertigt. Galatea wurde demnach von Magdalena Friberth statt von Anna Maria Scheffstoss gesungen. Und da Eleonore Jäger zu diesem Zeitpunkt schon zu alt war (über 50), entschloss sich Haydn wohl dazu, Tetide in Nettuno und in eine Bassrolle umzuändern und Christian Specht damit zu betrauen.

Score

Acide. Festa teatrale
Editor: Günter Thomas; Reihe XXV, Band 1;
1985, G. Henle Verlag München

Status of score
incomplete
Information about score

Festzuhalten ist, dass es zwei Fassungen dieser Oper gibt: Eine von 1763 und eine weitere von 1773/1774. Zur Fassung Acide 1763: Neben der drei-sätzigen Ouvertüre (die ersten 32 Takte fehlen im Autograph) sind folgende Szenen/Arien als Autograph erhalten: 

  • Szene I, Arie des Acide: La beltà, che m'innamora
  • Szene III, Arie der Glauce: Perché stupisci tanto
  • Szene IV, Arie des Polifemo: Se men gentile
  • Szene V, Acc.-Rez. des Acide: Misero ! Che ascolto
  • Szene XII, Arie der Tetide: Tergi i vezzosi rai 
  • sowie das abschließende Quartett: Ah vedrai, bell'idol mio

Vier Arien sowie alle Rezitative gelten als verloren. Wobei man nicht genau sagen kann, ob es sich bei den Rezitativen um Secco-Rezitative handelte oder um Accompagnato-Rezitative. 

Zur überarbeiteten Fassung von 1773/1774: 

  • Neben einem nur partiell erhaltenen, neu vertonten Teil der Szene II, der Arie der Galatea, Troppo felice, wohlgemerkt mit 2 Englischhörnern
  • wurde auch die Szene XI rund um Galatea um ein dramatisches Acc.-Rez. erweitert 
  • und die ursprüngliche Arie der Tetide in die neukreierte Bass-Rolle Nettuno umgeformt. Hier folgt Haydn nicht mehr der Da-capo-Form. Gemäß des erweiterten Orchesterapparats konnte Haydn in dieser Arie 2 Fagotti notieren, da sonst nicht einmal eines extra notiert wurde und jenes nur den Bass verdoppelte.

Persons

Opernkapitel Acide 1

Persons

Staff of period I
Ensemble of period I
Opera roles
Acide tenor
Galatea soprano
Polifemo bass
Glauce soprano
Tetide alto
Nettuno Bass
Cast / Attori
Orchestration

1763: 2|2|0|0 – 2|0 – str.
1774: 0|2(EH)|0|2 – 2|0 – str.

Orchestra cast

1763: 1|2(1Fl)|0|(1) – 2|0 – str.
1774: 0|2(2EH)|0|2 – 2|0 – str.

Number of orchestra musicians

1763: 1|2|0|1 – 2|0 – str. (1|1|1|1|1)
1774: 0|2|0|2 – 2|0 – str. (2|2|1|1|1)

Cast

1763:

flute Franz Sigl
oboe Michael Kapfer, Georg Kapfer
basoon Johann Hinterberger
horn Johann Knoblauch, Thaddäus Steinmüller
violin/viola Luigi Tomasini (cm), Johann Georg Heger, Lucas Garnier (viola)
violoncello Joseph Weigl
double bass Johann Schwenda

1774:

oboe Carl Chorus, Zacharias Pohl
basoon Johann Hinterberger, Caspar Peczival
horn Carl Franz, wohl entweder Franz Pauer oder Joseph Oliva
violin/viola Luigi Tomasini (cm), Joseph Dietzl, Franz Pauer oder Joseph Oliva, Joseph Purcksteiner (viola)
violoncello Xavier Marteau
double bass Carl Schiringer

Libretto

Opernkapitel Acide 2

Libretto

Libretto

The libretto was written by Giovanni Ambrogio Migliavacca of Milan,  a student of Pietro Metastasio’s, whose 1722 azione teatrale ‘Galatea’ served as a model: the story of ‘Acis and Galatea’ from Ovid’s Metamorphoses. The libretto probably ended up in Haydn’s hands through the mediation of Count Giacomo Durazzo. This patron and friend of the prince had already given Migliavacca’s libretto to Gluck, who had turned it into the opera Tetide in 1760. Durazzo was a patron of both Gluck and Migliavacca.

Arrangement of libretto
Unbekannt

Opera parts

Opernkapitel Acide 3

Opera parts

      Sinfonia Allegro molto – Andante grazioso – Finale Presto
      SCENA PRIMA
      GlauceAcide Ah fuggi, Acide, fuggi 
      Aria Acide La beltà, che m'innamora
      SCENA II
      GlauceGalatea Oh se veduto avessi 
      [Aria] Galatea (siehe partiell erhaltene Neufassung) 
Troppo felice 
      SCENA III
      GlaucePolifemo Oh quanto, oh quanto io rido
      Aria Glauce Perché stupisci tanto  
      SCENA IV
      Polifemo E perché al par di Glauce 
      Aria Polifemo Se men gentile
      SCENA V
      AcideGalateaGlauce Né torna Galatea? 
      Recitativo accompagnato Acide Misero! Che ascolto? 
      [Aria] Acide Ah se ancor soffrir degg'io 
      SCENA VI
      GalateaGlauce E fin a quando, o Numi 
      SCENA VII
      PolifemoGlauceGalatea Vezzosa Galatea
      [Aria] Galatea Coll'idol mio fra l'onde 
      SCENA VIII
      PolifemoGlauce Quella superba, o Glauce 
      [Aria] Glauce Non voglio amarti
      SCENA IX
      Polifemo E di Nettuno il figlio 
      SCENA X
      GlauceAcidePolifemo Partì. Più non si tardi 
      SCENA XI
      GalateaGlauce Diletta Glauce 
      SCENA XII
      TetideGlauceGalatea Sorgi, di' Neréo e Dori 
      Aria Betide [NettunoTergi i vezzosi rai 
      Galatea, Tetide, Glauce E tu, gran Dea dell' onde 
      SCENA ULTIMA
      AcideGalateaGlauce Da Lete io torno
      Quartetto Galatea, Glauce, Tetide, Acide 
Ah vedrai, bell'idol mio

Synopsis

Opernkapitel Acide 4

Synopsis

The action takes place in a Sicilian forest at the foot of Mount Etna, near the sea. Galatea, one of the Nereids, kind and beautiful sea nymphs, falls in love with the young shepherd Acis, son of a nymph and King Faunus; for his sake, she leaves the sea. However, the one-eyed Cyclops Polifemo, son of the sea god Neptune, also covets the charming Galatea, who rejects him.
Glauce, Galatea’s confidant, implores Acis to flee, lest the jealous and cruel Polifemo seek his life. Acis remains fearless and refuses to run away, not wanting to leave Galatea. Glauce also advises Galatea to flee, abandon Acis and forget her love for him. This is also completely unthinkable for Galatea. 
Glauce doesn’t understand the lovers and their blind naivety. Then she meets Polifemo, who is already looking for Galatea in vain, and makes a joke that he should forget Galatea, because she, Glauce, is the only one who truly loves him. She tells him that no heart could resist such an enchanting face as his and that she would remain faithful to him. Polifemo is amazed but believes her false, malicious flattery.
What is it that attracts Glauce but repels Galatea? Polifemo begins to ponder the question, unsure, because he is aware of his ugly appearance: one-eyed, with an eyebrow that stretches from one ear to the other, shaggy beard, nose like a mountain, limbs covered with bristly hair. At heart, however, he is full of tenderness, sensitivity and dignity. Galatea tells Acis to flee with her. Their boat, a large shell, is ready and they will be safe at sea. Acis agrees to follow her wherever she pleases. However, Glauce advises waiting for the moment when Polifemo goes to sleep. In the meantime, they should hide separately from each other. Acis seeks shelter in the undergrowth and Galatea seeks refuge in the waves. 
Suddenly Polifemo appears, wanting to win Galatea by any means. Glauce persuades Galatea to pretend. But she hates and despises him, the terror of the forests, and his devilish mind which knows no justice and which offends both men and gods. Polifemo warns that he can obliterate smoking Etna with his enormous power and destroy all the deities of the sea, including the Nereids. However, Galatea appears fearless and laughs her fear away, believing she and Acis – thinking about their planned escape – are safe. Polifemo then turns to Glauce: she should now be his bride, but she too despises him and admits that she never loved him, and thinks him a monster. Polyphemus decides to take revenge on his rival. Upon discovering Acis, he slays him with a large boulder.
Galatea seeks Acis and learns of his fate from Glauce. She calls on the furies to take revenge and wishes to destroy Polifemo, but her plea remains unanswered. She then begs the gods to give her Acis back, otherwise she would not want to live anymore. Her breath slows down, her voice gradually falls silent, she loses consciousness. Neptune, deus ex machina, (in the 1763 version Tetide, a Nereid) emerges from the waves and heralds a turn for the better.
Acis is brought back to life, his blood dripping from the boulder transformed into gushing water that henceforth becomes as crystal clear as a stream. Acis himself becomes the river god: he emerges from the new body of water, aqua blue and with a horned head braided with reeds, the sign of aquatic deities. In general enchantment, Acis and Galatea assure each other of their everlasting love: rather shall the brook return to its source, or day and night merge, than their souls become unfaithful.2

Libretto

1757

1. Periode
Hob.I:1

1757/1758

1. Periode
Hob.I:37

1757-1759

1. Periode
Hob.I:18
Hob.I:2

1757-1760

1. Periode
Hob.I:4
Hob.I:27

1758-1760

1. Periode
Hob.I:10
Hob.I:20

1761/1762

1. Periode
Hob.I:36
Hob.I:33

1766

4. Periode

1771

4. Periode
Hob.I:52
Hob.I:42

1774/1775

5. Periode
Hob.I:68

1776

5. Periode
Hob.I:61

1777/1778

5. Periode
Hob.I:53 "L'Impériale"

1778/1779

5. Periode
Hob.I:71

1780

5. Periode
Hob.I:74
Hob.I:62

1781

5. Periode
Hob.I:73 "La chasse"

1787

8. Periode
Hob.I:89

-1788

8. Periode
Hob.I:88

1788

8. Periode
Hob.I:90
Hob.I:91

1789

8. Periode
Hob.I:92 "Oxford"

1793

10. Periode
Hob.I:99

1794

10. Periode
Hob.I:102

1796

1799

1801

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
I. Periode
Acide
 
I. Periode
 
I. Periode
 
I. Periode
La canterina
I. Periode
 
I. Periode
Lo speziale
 
I. Periode
 
I. Periode
Le pescatrici
 
I. Periode
 
I. Periode
 
II. Periode
 
II. Periode
 
II. Periode
 
II. Periode
Il mondo della luna
 
II. Periode
 
III. Periode
 
III. Periode
La fedeltà premiata
 
III. Periode
Orlando paladino
 
III. Periode
Armida
 
III. Periode
La vera costanza II