Giuseppe Haydn

13 OPERÆ

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Kultur Niederösterreich, Haydn Stiftung

La vera costanza

Dramma giocoso

Haydn13

Information about the opera

Original title

LA VERA COSTANZA. DRAMMA GIOCOSO PER MUSICA DA RAPPRESENTARSI AL TEATRO D'ESTERHAZ  LA PRIMAVERA 1779.

Classification
II. period 8. opera / series XXV:8 / Hob. XXVIII:8
Opera type
Dramma giocoso / Opera semiseria
Number of acts
3
Occasion of composition

Georg August Griesinger assumed that La vera costanza was a work commissioned by the Imperial Court in Vienna as early as 1776 and that, due to uncertainties regarding the cast, it did not take place. However, there is no evidence for this theory. Thus, the occasion remains unknown.

Year
1778-1779 and 1785
World premiere
25 April 1779 and April 1785
Place of world premiere
1779 and 1785: Prince’s Opera House at Esterháza Palace
Number of performances

Im Premierenjahr 1779 zählte La vera costanza 21 Aufführungen. Bei der Wiederaufnahme 1785 und der damit einhergehenden Notwendigkeit der Rekonstruktion bzw. Neukomposition großer Teile der Partitur erlebte die Oper zwischen 1785 und 1786 weitere 20 Aufführungen. Addiert man also die 21 Aufführungen der "Urfassung" von 1779 hinzu, erhält man die unglaubliche Zahl von 41 Aufführungen, die nur von der Armida mit 54 Aufführungen überboten wurde. Festzuhalten gilt es an dieser Stelle, dass La vera costanza und Armida die letzten eigenen Opern waren, die Haydn parallel im Spielplan führte. Und ganz klar lässt sich ein Einfluss der Armida in der rekonstruierten Fassung der La vera costanza feststellen.

Score

La vera costanza - Dramma giocoso per musica
Editor: Horst Walter; Reihe XXV, Band 8;
1976, G. Henle Verlag München

Status of score
edition of 1785 is complete
Information about score

Der Originalautograph wurde wohl beim Opernhaus-Brand vernichtet. Für die Wiederaufnahme 1785 erstellte Haydn eine neue Partitur.
Es liegt letztendlich im eigenen Ermessen, La vera costanza als eine Komposition aus dem Jahre 1778/1779 oder als eine (vollkommen; je nach Sichtweise) neue Komposition von 1785 zu sehen.
Am 18. November 1779 wurde im Zuge des Theaterbrandes das gesamte Aufführungsmaterial zur Oper La vera costanza vernichtet. Da die Oper noch einige Tage zuvor gegeben wurde, befand sich das gesamte Material im Theater. Man muss davon ausgehen, dass diese Oper die einzige ist, deren Autograph (jenes von 1779) nicht einmal in Teilen vorhanden ist.

Die "rekonstruierte" Partitur:
Die Ausgangslage: Das Autograph von 1779 und das von Leopold Dichtler hergestellte Aufführungsmaterial, ebenfalls von 1779, sind also nicht erhalten. Als nun 1785 diese Oper wieder aufgenommen werden sollte, erstellte Haydn eine neue Partitur. Dabei gingen ihm zwei Kopisten zur Hand. Was konnte nun rekonstruiert werden und was wurde womöglich neu komponiert?

  • Die Sinfonia Nr.1: Eine dreiteilige Sinfonia wurde schon 1783 bei Artaria veröffentlicht. Aus dem dritten Teil, der auch ursprünglich aus der Introduktion entnommen wurde, fertigte Haydn später wieder die Introduktion an. Diese Sinfonia wurde von Kopisten angefertigt. Hier tritt nur ein Fagott in Erscheinung, wie auch bei der Nr. 24, gemäß der Orchesterbesetzung von 1779. Das spricht für die authentische Urfassung.
  • Nr. 4, die Arie der Baronessa Non s’innalza, non stride sdegnosa, wurde auch von einem Kopisten basierend auf einer authentischen Quelle notiert.
  • Nr. 24a und b, das Acc.-Rez. Misera, chi m’aiuto und die Arie Dove fuggo der Rosina, konnten offenbar ebenfalls anhand authentischer Quellen von einem Kopisten niedergeschrieben werden. Auch hier bleibt vorerst das eine Fagott erhalten.
  • Im Falle der Nr. 28 (VIII Szene), des Acc.-Rez. und der Arie des Conte Errico Ah non m’inganno bediente sich Haydn einer Vertonung Anfossis aus seiner gleichnamigen Oper. In einer späteren von Haydn durchgesehen Abschrift verschwindet diese Nummer Anfossis wieder, ersatzlos!
  • Die XI Szene der Rosina, das Acc.-Rez. Nr. 30a Eccomi giunta al colmo und die Arie 30b Care spiagge, selve addio waren ebenfalls als Abschrift des Kopisten Elßler vorhanden. Auch diese Szene notierten Kopisten.

Den Großteil der Partitur hat aber Haydn selbst rekonstruiert oder gar neu komponiert, insgesamt 28 Nummern. In welcher Intensität eine Neukomposition bzw. nur eine Rekonstruktion vollzogen wurde, lässt sich nicht genau eruieren. 
Vergleiche mit früheren Skizzen zeigen bei den Rezitativen einige Neukompositionen, bei anderen Nummern wiederum größtenteils Übereinstimmung.

  • Sicher neu komponiert wurden folgende Rezitative: Nr. 3, Nr. 5, Nr. 7, Nr. 9, Nr. 11 und Nr. 27
  • Die Introduktion Nr. 2 bzw. Arien Nr. 8, Nr. 12 und das I. Finale Nr. 16 stimmen großteils mit den Skizzen überein.

Damit bleiben doch viele Nummern über, deren Kompositionsdatum nicht klar zuordenbar ist: 1778/1779 oder 1785. 
Haydn ging bei den (Neu)Kompositionen wie folgt vor: Er notierte zuerst die Singstimme neben den obligatorischen Angaben (Besetzung, Tonart etc.). Die Instrumentierung erfolgte im nächsten Schritt. Und diese Instrumentierung war mit vielen Korrekturen versehen. Das sieht nicht nach Abschrift aus!

Persons

Opernkapitel Vera 1

Persons

Staff of period II
Ensemble of period II
Staff of period III
Ensemble of period III
Opera roles
Il Conte Errico Giovine volubite e stravaganta, sposo segreto di Rosina tenor
Rosina Pescatrice virtuosa e di spirito soprano
La Baronessa Irene Zia del Conte, amante d’Ernesto soprano
Il Marchese Ernesto Amico del Conte tenor
Villotto Villano ricco, ma sciocco, destinato sposo di Rosina bass
Lisetta Cameriera della Baronessa, amante non corrisposta di Masino soprano
Masino Capo de' pescatori, fratello di Rosina tenor
Cast / Personaggi
Orchestration

1779: 1|2|0|1 – 2|0 – 0 – str.
1785: 1|2|0|2 – 2|0 – 0 – str.

Orchestra cast

1779: 1|2|0|1 – 2|0 – 0 – str.
1785: 1|2|0|2 – 2|0 – 0 – str.

Number of orchestra musicians

1779: 1|2|0|1 – 2|0 – 0 – str.(5|3|2|1|2)
1785: 1|2|0|2 – 2|0 – 0 – str.(5|4|2|2|2)

Cast

1779:

flute Zacharias Hirsch
oboe Anton Poschwa, Zacharias Pohl
basoon Caspar Peczival
horn Johann Hollerrieder, Martin Rupp
violin/viola Luigi Tomasini (cm), Antonio Rossetti, Joseph Hofmann, Francesco Ripamonti, Antonio Polzelli, Joseph Dietzl, Franz Pauer, Joseph Oliva, Joseph Purcksteiner (viola), Christian Specht (viola)
violoncello Anton Kraft
Kontrabass Johann Dietzl, Carl Schiringer

1785:

flute Zacharias Hirsch
oboe Anton Mayer, Joseph Czerwenka
basoon Joseph Steiner, Franz Czerwenka oder Caspar Peczival
horn Natale Chiesa, Johann Hörmann
violin/viola Luigi Tomasini (cm), Franz Mraf, Johann Tost, Joseph Hofmann, Antonio Polzelli, Joseph Dietzl, Franz Pauer, Joseph Oliva, Christian Specht (viola), Joseph Purcksteiner (viola)
violoncello Anton Kraft, Valentin Bertoja
double bass Johann Dietzl, Carl Schiringer

Libretto

Opernkapitel Vera 2

Libretto

Libretto

Haydn’s libretto is based on Francesco Puttini’s libretto for Pasquale Anfossi’s opera ‘La vera costanza’, which premiered in Rome in 1776, and which was then performed in Vienna in 1777.15 Haydn or the unknown arranger shortened the original by twelve scenes and also changed two scenes.

Arrangement of libretto
Unbekannt
Mutazione di scene

ATTO PRIMO
Spiaggia di mare terminata dall'orizzonte, e lateralmente ingombrata di folti alberi, fra' quali diverse rustiche e capanne pescarecce.

ATTO SECONDO
Cortile nel castello di Belmonte.
Sala.

ATTO TERZO
Sala.

Opera parts

Opernkapitel Vera 3

Opera parts

    1.  Sinfonia
ATTO PRIMO      
      SCENA I
    2. Introduzione Rosina, Masino, Baronessa, Ernesto, Lisetta, Villotto
Che burrasca, che tempesta
    3. Recitativo Masino, Baronessa, Ernesto, Rosina, Lisetta, Villotto 
S'è lecito, signora
    4. Aria Baronessa Non s'innalza, non stride sdegnosa
      SCENA II
    5. Recitativo Rosina, Villotto, Masino In qual cimento, oh Dio
    6. Aria Masino So che una bestia sei
      SCENA III
    7. Recitativo Villotto, Conte Oh questa si ch'e bella
      SCENA IV
      (Recitativo) Rosina, Lisetta Dunque la Baronessa
    8. Aria Rosina Con un tenero sospiro
      SCENA V
    9. Recitativo Villotto, Conte, Masino, Ernesto Evviva allegramente
      SCENA VI
      (Recitativo) Baronessa, Lisetta, Rosina, Masino, Ernesto, Villotto, Conte 
Ecco, Rosina mia
    10. Aria Villotto Non sparate
      SCENA VII
    11. Recitativo Baronessa, Conte, Rosina, Lisetta, Ernesto 
Vanne, sciocco balordo
      SCENA VIII
      (Recitativo) Masino, Lisetta Non so dove mi sia
    12. Aria Lisetta Io son poverina
      SCENA IX
    13. Recitativo Conte, Rosina Ah ehe già sono ormai
      SCENA X
      (Recitativo) Villotto, Conte, Rosina Pure alfin l'ho trovata
    14a. Recitativo accompagnato Conte Mira il campo
    14b. Aria Conte A trionfar t'invita.
      SCENA XI
    15. Recitativo Villotto, Rosina, Masino Ecco che siamo, o cara
    16. Finale Imo Rosina, Villotto, Masino Ah che divenni stupida
      SCENA XII
      (Finale Imo) Baronessa, Ernesto, Rosina, Villotto, Masino 
Bel godere la campagna
      SCENA XIII
      (Finale Imo) Lisetta, Villotto, Masino Salvati, fuggi
      SCENA XIV
      (Finale Imo) Conte, Rosina Dov'è, dov'è l'indegno?
      SCENA XV
      (Finale Imo) Baronessa, Ernesto, Villotto, Rosina, Conte, Lisetta, Masino 
Che miro, Rosina?
      (Finale Imo) Rosina, Baronessa, Lisetta, Conte, Ernesto, Masino, Villotto 
Ah per la pena, per il timore
       
ATTO SECONDO      
       
    17. Recitativo Baronessa, Ernesto Eben, che dici adesso
      SCENA II
      (Recitativo) Villotto, Ernesto lo non ne posso più
      SCENA III
      (Recitativo) Ernesto, Rosina, Masino, Villotto Vieni, Rosina, appunto
    18. Duetto Masino, Villotto Massima filosofica
    19. Recitativo Villotto Senti Masino
      SCENA IV
      (Recitativo) Ernesto, Rosina, Baronessa, Conte, Lisetta, Villotto 
Ah Rosina crudel
    20. Aria Ernesto Per pietà vezzosi rai
      SCENA V
    21. Recitativo Rosina, Baronessa, Conte Che destino crudel!
    22. (Coro) Baronessa, Rosina, Conte, Lisetta, Villotto 
Va, pettegola insolente
      SCENA VI
    23. Recitativo Rosina, Masino Ma che ingiustizia è questa!
    24a. Recitativo accompagnato Rosina Misera, chi m'aiuta
    24b. Aria Rosina Dove fuggo, ove m'ascondo
      SCENA VII
    25. Recitativo Conte, Villotto Ah ehe perfida donna!
    26. Aria Villotto Già la morte in manto nero
      SCENA VIII
    27. Recitativo Conte, Lisetta Ed accio non mi resti per colei
    28. Recitativo accompagnato ed Aria Conte Ah non m'inganno
    29. Recitativo Lisetta Oh vedete che flemma
      SCENA IX
    30a. Recitativo accompagnato Rosina Eccomi giunta al colm
    30b. Aria Rosina Care spiagge, selve, addio
    30c. Recitativo accompagnato Rosina Caro figlio, partiamo
      SCENA X
    31. Recitativo Masino, Villotto Giro di qua, di là
    32. Finale IIdo Villotto, Lisetta, Masino Animo risoluto
      SCENA XI
      (Finale IIdo) Lisetta, Baronessa, Ernesto Masino, deh senti
      SCENA XII
      (Finale IIdo) Masino, Villotto, Ernesto, Baronessa, Lisetta 
Perfido, indegno
      SCENA XIII
      (Finale IIdo) Conte, Rosina Ah dov'è la mia Rosina?
      (Finale IIdo) Baronessa, Lisetta, Ernesto, Masino, Villotto 
Che stupore
      (Finale IIdo) Baronessa, Ernesto, Villotto, Rosina, Conte, Lisetta, Masino 
Ah pettegola sfacciata
      (Finale IIdo) Rosina, Baronessa, Lisetta, Ernesto, Conte, Masino, Villotto 
Già per l'aria a poco a poco
       
ATTO TERZO      
      SCENA I
    33. Recitativo Conte, Rosina Che donna ingannatrice!
    34. Duetto Conte, Rosina Rosina, vezzosina
      SCENA UTLIMA
    35. Recitativo Ernesto, Baronessa, Conte, Villotto, Masino, Lisetta, Rosina 
Si, mia cara
    36. Coro Rosina, Baronessa, Lisetta, Conte, Ernesto, Masino, Villotto 
Benché gema un'alma oppressa
       
       

Synopsis

Opernkapitel Vera 4

Synopsis

Act 1
The Baronessa Irena, Marchese Ernesto, Villotto, a rich nobleman, and the maid Lisetta land with their boat near a fishing village after a heavy storm. The aim of their journey is marriage. The Baronessa Irena is looking for Rosina in order to marry her to Villotto. The marriage is to put an end to a grievance that has lasted for years. 
The fishing village also happens to be the home of Rosina and her brother Masino who, together with other fishermen, rush to help the guests.
Already at the first exchange of courtesies, Rosina is upset when she learns that the Baronessa is Conte Errico’s aunt. Without further ado, the Baronessa then introduces Villotto as her future husband.
Villotto is convinced of the marriage and describes himself as her ‘husband’, but he is immediately put down by Masino.
However, Villotto is unimpressed by Masino’s behaviour. At that moment, Conte Errico appears and, with a concealed pistol, tells Villotto to give up Rosina. At the same time, Masino is being blackmailed by Ernesto, who is using a concealed knife, to force his sister to marry Villotto. Ernesto is pursuing his own goals and expects something from this liaison: the hand of the Baronessa. With a pistol pointed at him, it is not easy for Villotto to keep a cool head and he begins to waver. Finally, the Baronessa persuades him to marry Rosina, but is not aware that he is being threatened with a gun. Villotto is completely in pieces.
Naturally, Masino, who has also been threatened with death, behaves in a confused manner. Now Lisetta interferes in events and takes Masino’s side, because she has taken a liking to him.
In the next scene, the Conte meets Rosina alone for the first time. She reveals that they are in fact married. This explains the Baronessa’s wicked wedding plans. She wants to ruin her nephew’s marriage to Rosina, which does not befit his status. For the time being, the Conte coldly rejects Rosina, but soon begins to falter. His burgeoning feelings are abruptly stifled by Villotto’s appearance, and he offers Rosina to Villotto, but Vilotto declares that he has had enough of all the chaos and is turning to the life of a soldier. Then the Conte’s mood changes once again.
Lisetta, in turn, understands Rosina’s dislike of Villotto, whereupon Rosina explains the whole story of her hapless marriage to the Conte. What makes things even more complicated is that a child was born of this still-binding marriage.
In the following first finale, Rosina, Villotto and Masino once again explain their respective positions, which leads in a dispute.
This quarrel is briefly interrupted by a love duet between Ernesto and the Baronessa. Rosina, Villotto and Masino, who then join them, become involved in the scene, sparking a war of words between all five. Ernesto and the Baronessa withdraw, but not before threatening Rosina again. Rosina also withdraws. Villotto wants to follow her but is prevented from doing so by Masino.
Lisetta, who now arrives, warns the two of the Conte, who is after them. The three run away, disturbed.
In a dramatic scene, Rosina asks the Conte to kill her, which of course upsets him and makes him aware of his feelings for Rosina again, and leads to them getting back together.
This is noticed by the Baronessa, who clearly wants to destroy their relationship by tempting the Conte with the prospect of another, future wife. Horrified, Rosina recognises her situation: the Conte seems to be turning away from her again.

Act 2
The second act begins with a classic misunderstanding. Ernesto asks Rosina for help in winning the Baronessa. This is observed by the Baronessa, the Conte, Lisetta and Villotto and interpreted as an insidious breach of trust. Everyone seems to have it in for Rosina. The agitated Conte takes drastic measures: he orders Villotto to kill Rosina and her brother Masino. Only Lisetta’s descriptions of Rosina’s state of mind seem to stir the Count a little. However, he does not take back his order to have her murdered.
In the meantime Rosina has decided to go away with her child.
In his search for Rosina, Villotto finds her sleeping brother, who he intends to kill immediately, as instructed.
He prepares to carry out the Conte’s orders, but he hesitates and is then stopped by Lisetta. With all the intrigues, the situation is spiralling out of control, and everyone seems to have lost their bearings. Nevertheless, for the time being, they decide to search for Rosina.
The Conte also goes in search of Rosina and for the first time meets his child, who leads him to Rosina and the two are reconciled once again.
Meanwhile, the couple have been found by the others. The Conte explains the situation and his feelings for Rosina, which the Baronessa, Ernesto and Villotto refuse to accept. The second finale ends with all sorts of threats.

Act 3
The Baronessa still strives to carry out her perfidious plan to drive the happy couple apart. She gives both the Conte and Rosina forged farewell letters from each other, but the nefarious plan is quickly  As a result, the Baronessa gives in to Rosina’s ‘vera costanza’ (‘true constancy’) and everything turns out for the better.16

Libretto

1757

1. Periode
Hob.I:1

1757/1758

1. Periode
Hob.I:37

1757-1759

1. Periode
Hob.I:18
Hob.I:2

1757-1760

1. Periode
Hob.I:4
Hob.I:27

1758-1760

1. Periode
Hob.I:10
Hob.I:20

1761/1762

1. Periode
Hob.I:36
Hob.I:33

1766

4. Periode

1771

4. Periode
Hob.I:52
Hob.I:42

1774/1775

5. Periode
Hob.I:68

1776

5. Periode
Hob.I:61

1777/1778

5. Periode
Hob.I:53 "L'Impériale"

1778/1779

5. Periode
Hob.I:71

1780

5. Periode
Hob.I:74
Hob.I:62

1781

5. Periode
Hob.I:73 "La chasse"

1787

8. Periode
Hob.I:89

-1788

8. Periode
Hob.I:88

1788

8. Periode
Hob.I:90
Hob.I:91

1789

8. Periode
Hob.I:92 "Oxford"

1793

10. Periode
Hob.I:99

1794

10. Periode
Hob.I:102

1796

1799

1801

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
I. Periode
Acide
 
I. Periode
 
I. Periode
 
I. Periode
La canterina
I. Periode
 
I. Periode
Lo speziale
 
I. Periode
 
I. Periode
Le pescatrici
 
I. Periode
 
I. Periode
 
II. Periode
 
II. Periode
 
II. Periode
 
II. Periode
Il mondo della luna
 
II. Periode
 
III. Periode
 
III. Periode
La fedeltà premiata
 
III. Periode
Orlando paladino
 
III. Periode
Armida
 
III. Periode
La vera costanza II