Giuseppe Haydn

13 OPERÆ

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Kultur Niederösterreich, Haydn Stiftung

Orfeo ed Euridice

Dramma per musica

Haydn13

Information about the opera

Original title

L' OPERA. L’ANIMA DEL FILOSOFO. COMPOSTA DA ME GIUSEPPE HAYDN MPRIA 1791. Later: ORFEO ED EURIDICE and finally: L’ANIMA DEL FILOSOFO OSSIA ORFEO ED EURIDICE.

Classification
series XXV:13 / Hob. XXVIII:13
Opera type
Dramma per musica
Number of acts
5
Occasion of composition

Commissioned by the impresario John Gallini for the rebuilding of the King’s Theatre in London after a devastating fire.

Year
1790-1791
World premiere
Planned for 31 May 1791, but this did not take place because the theatre ultimately did not receive permission. This had less to do with Haydn himself than with political intrigue. The actual world premiere took place on 8 June 1951.
Place of world premiere
The planned venue had been the Haymarket Theatre in London. The actual venue was the Teatro della Pergola in Florence.
Score

L'anima del filosofo ossia Orfeo ed Euridice. Dramma per musica
Editor: Helmut Wirth; Reihe XXV, Band 13;
1974, G. Henle Verlag München

Status of score
complete
Information about score

The opinion is still held that this wonderful opera is unfinished. This is an opinion that is neither well-founded nor does justice to the work. This misjudgement is based on the one hand on a letter from Haydn in which he writes of five acts (which were composed; he wrote two short acts at the end, which he also composed), and on the other hand probably more on the tragic ending of this opera, which was highly unusual at the time and which would not have been expected of Joseph Haydn. In the final dramatic action, the hero drinks from a poisoned cup, and as a musical conclusion, there is a chorus of bacchantes who are doomed to sink in a storm at sea. Those who doubt this are encouraged to consider the idea that Haydn was indeed looking for such endings. One should simply consider the development of opera, which was becoming increasingly serious. Those who want to stimulate the imagination should try to add something musical after this magical ending composed by Haydn and that’s before we mention the storyline.
However, certain omissions can be found in the surviving score and copies. There is an incorrect indication for the English horns, a tenor clef instead of a bass clef, and gaps in the notes here and there. This is certainly due to the inglorious end of this commissioned composition. Haydn had evidently no longer carried out the writing of the score in a consistent manner. The fact that a libretto was not printed is self-explanatory.
Initial ambiguities about the order of the titles were soon resolved in the Henle edition. A logical sequence could now be drawn up.

Persons

Opernkapitel Orfeo 1

Persons

Opera roles
Creonte Re di Tebe, padre d'Euridice  
Euridice Figlia di Creonte e promessa s'Arideo  
Orfeo Tracio cantore  
Genio Messaggero di Sibilla  
Pluto Dio dell'orco  
Baccante    
Corista I, II, III, IV    
Corista V    
Cast / Attori
Orchestration
2|2|2|2 – 2|2|2 – 1 – Ha. – str.
Cast
flute Zacharias Hirsch
oboe Anton Poschwa, Zacharias Pohl
basoon Caspar Peczival
horn Johann Hollerrieder, Martin Rupp
timpani Caspar Peczival
violin/viola Luigi Tomasini (cm), Joseph Dietzl, Franz Pauer und/oder Joseph Oliva, Anton Höld, Johann Dietzl, Joseph Purcksteiner (viola)
violoncello Xavier Marteau
double bass Carl Schiringer

Libretto

Opernkapitel Orfeo 2

Libretto

Libretto

 

The libretto was written by Carlo Francesco Badini, based on the mythological story of Orpheus and Euridice from Ovid’s Metamorphoses. Badini had previously appeared as a lyricist in connection with Haydn as the writer of Orlando paladino, which also served as the basis for Haydn’s opera of the same name, albeit revised by Nunziato Porta. The libretto has not survived, which is why it cannot be used for verification. This circumstance also made the urtext edition of the Henle score used for this project more difficult.

Opera parts

Opernkapitel Orfeo 3

Opera parts

    1. Ouverture
ATTO PRIMO      
      SCENA I
    2a. Recitativo accompagnato Euridice Sventurata, che fo?
    2b. Coro con Solo Euridice, Tenori, Bassi 
Ferma il piede, o principessa!
    3a. Recitativo accompagnato Euridice Che chiedete da me?
    3b. Aria Euridice Filomena abbandonata
      SCENA II
    4. Recitativo Coristi [I, II, III], Orfeo, Euridice Cieli! Soccorso! Aita!
    5a. Recitativo accompagnato Orfeo Rendete a questo seno
    5b. Aria Orfeo Cara speme! Alme di scoglio!
    6. Recitativo Un Corista [I], Euridice, Orfeo O prodigio, o stupor
    7. Coro Tenori, Bassi O poter dell'armonia!
      SCENA III
    8. Recitativo Creonte, Coristi [I, Il, III] Ah! chi sa dirmi
    9. Aria Creonte Il pensier sta negli oggetti
      SCENA IV
    10. Recitativo Orfeo, Euridice, Creonte Grazie agli dei
    11. Duetto Euridice, Orfeo Come il foco allo splendore
       
ATTO SECONDO      
      SCENA I
    12. Coro Amorini (Soprano I, II) Finché circola il vigore
    13. Recitativo Orfeo, Euridice Adorata consorte, or io conosco
    14a. Coro con Duetto Euridice, Orfeo, Amorini (Soprano I, II)
Finché circola il vigore
    14b. Recitativo accompagnato Euridice, Orfeo Numi, che ascolto!
      SCENA II
    15. Recitativo Un Corista [IV], Euridice Ecco, signor, la principessa
    16a. Recitativo accompagnato Euridice Dov'è l'amato bene?
    16b. Cavatina Euridice Del mio core il voto estremo
    17. Recitativo Corista [IV] Con Euridice estinte
      SCENA III
    18a. Recitativo accompagnato Orfeo Dov'è quell'alma audace
    18b. Aria Orfeo In un mar d'acerbe pene
      SCENA IV
    19. Recitativo Corista [V], Creonte Euridice, signor
    20. Aria Creonte Mai non sia inulto
       
ATTO TERZO      
      SCENA I
    21. Coro Vergini (Soprano I, Il), Uomini (Basso I, Il) Ah, sposo infelice!
    22. Recitativo Orfeo, Creonte Al cielo te ne voli 
    23. Coro Vergini (Soprano I, Il) Ah, sposo infelice ! 
      SCENA II
    24. Recitativo Creonte, Corista [V] Che sarà mai d'Orfeo? 
    25. Aria Creonte Chi spira e non spera 
      SCENA III
    26. Recitativo Orfeo, Genio Venerata Sibilla
    27. Aria Genio Al tuo seno fortunato 
      SCENA IV
    28. Recitativo Orfeo Costanza a me si chiede? 
    29. Coro Soprano, Alto, Tenore, Basso La giustizia in cor regina 
    30. Recitativo Orfeo, Genio Dove mi guidi?
       
ATTO QUARTO      
      SCENA I
    31. Coro Soprano, Alto, Tenore, Basso Infelici ombre dolenti 
    32. Recitativo Orfeo, Genio Che ascolto, oh numi! 
    33. Coro di furie Tenori, Bassi Urli orrendi, disperati 
      SCENA II
    34. Recitativo Orfeo O signor, che all' ombre imperi 
    35. Coro Tenori, Bassi Trionfi oggi pietà 
    36. Recitativo Pluto, Orfeo, Genio O della reggia mia 
      SCENA III
    37. Intermezzo 
    38. Recitativo Orfeo, Genio Quai dolci e care note 
    39. Coro Soprano, Alto, Tenore, Basso Son finite le tue pene
    40. Recitativo Genio, Euridice, Orfeo Sovvengati la legge
      SCENA IV
    41a. Recitativo accompagnato Orfeo Perduto un'altra volta
    41b. Aria Orfeo Mi sento languire
       
ATTO QUINTO      
      SCENA I
    42. Recitativo Orfeo Barbaro infido amore
    43. Coro di Baccanti Soprano, Alto Vieni, vieni, amato Orfeo
    44. Recitativo Orfeo, Baccante Perfide, non turbate di più
    45a. Coro con Recitativo accompagnato Orfeo, Baccanti (Soprano, Alto)
Bevi, bevi in questa tazza
    45b. Coro Baccanti (Soprano, Alto) Andiamo, amiche, andiamo
    45c. Coro Baccanti (Soprano, Alto) Oh, che orrore!

Synopsis

Opernkapitel Orfeo 4

Synopsis

Act 1
Euridice, who has been promised to Arideo as a wife by her father Creonte, has fled to a forest to avoid marrying the detested man. A horde of monsters wants to overpower and sacrifice her to the furies on a pyre that has already been prepared. Orfeo rushes to her aid and soothes the attackers with his singing and playing of the lyre. When Euridice’s father learns that Orfeo has rescued his daughter, he decides to break the promise made to Arideo and no longer oppose the union of Euridice and Orfeo. The couple celebrate their happiness.

Act 2
Euridice and Orfeo swear eternal love to each other. Startled by the noise, Orfeo leaves his beloved to find out the cause. A follower of Arideo breaks in and wants to kidnap Euridice. She manages to escape but is killed by the bite of a poisonous snake. Arideo’s follower proclaims that honour now calls for vengeance on Euridice’s faithless father. On his return, Orfeo finds his dead lover and laments their fate. A messenger brings the news of Euridice’s death to Creonte, who in turn swears revenge on Arideo. 

Act 3
Even Creonte is touched by Orfeo’s lament. When Orfeo invokes Sibilla, a Genio appears whom Orfeo should follow into the underworld if he wants to see his companion again, but he must restrain his desire and show bravery. The most effective consolation is offered by the magic potion of philosophy. Orfeo affirms his unbreakable love and steadfastness.

Act 4
At the entrance to the underworld, they meet the unburied and the furies. Moved by Orfeo’s pleas, Pluto grants them entry so that Orfeo can bring back his beloved. Pluto’s entourage warn him not to look at Euridice if he doesn’t want to lose her again. When he nevertheless looks at Euridice, Genio leaves him with the words ‘You are lost’, and Orfeo laments his loss.

Act 5
When the bacchantes try to win back Orfeo to love and pleasure, he renounces love and women. The bacchantes give him the poisoned nectar of love and Orfeo dies. Now they want to seek refuge on the island of pleasure, but a storm sinks them.28

Libretto

1757

1. Periode
Hob.I:1

1757/1758

1. Periode
Hob.I:37

1757-1759

1. Periode
Hob.I:18
Hob.I:2

1757-1760

1. Periode
Hob.I:4
Hob.I:27

1758-1760

1. Periode
Hob.I:10
Hob.I:20

1761/1762

1. Periode
Hob.I:36
Hob.I:33

1766

4. Periode

1771

4. Periode
Hob.I:52
Hob.I:42

1774/1775

5. Periode
Hob.I:68

1776

5. Periode
Hob.I:61

1777/1778

5. Periode
Hob.I:53 "L'Impériale"

1778/1779

5. Periode
Hob.I:71

1780

5. Periode
Hob.I:74
Hob.I:62

1781

5. Periode
Hob.I:73 "La chasse"

1787

8. Periode
Hob.I:89

-1788

8. Periode
Hob.I:88

1788

8. Periode
Hob.I:90
Hob.I:91

1789

8. Periode
Hob.I:92 "Oxford"

1793

10. Periode
Hob.I:99

1794

10. Periode
Hob.I:102

1796

1799

1801

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
I. Periode
Acide
 
I. Periode
 
I. Periode
 
I. Periode
La canterina
I. Periode
 
I. Periode
Lo speziale
 
I. Periode
 
I. Periode
Le pescatrici
 
I. Periode
 
I. Periode
 
II. Periode
 
II. Periode
 
II. Periode
 
II. Periode
Il mondo della luna
 
II. Periode
 
III. Periode
 
III. Periode
La fedeltà premiata
 
III. Periode
Orlando paladino
 
III. Periode
Armida
 
III. Periode
La vera costanza II